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To place an order for the Complete Project Material above (Research, References, Methodology etc) pay N5,000 to: FirstBank(First Bank) Account Name – Obasi Emmanuel Account No – 3042817065 After payment text your name, Project topic and your e-mail address to 08086698866.
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Corperate Social Responsibility


Corporate Social Responsibility has been perceived and practiced differently by different groups. In time past companies were only responsible to shareholders because they believed that profit making was the sole aim of being in business, Todays companies are accountable to the shareholders and also owe an obligation to all those in the society who are affected directly or indirectly by their business activities. It is from this obligation to society that the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) emerged. CSR is fast spreading over the world and recently, various methods have been developed in the practices. These methods have given rise to the perception people have of CSR.

Over time, CSR has been viewed and practiced as corporate Philanthropy, Companies Partner with Non-Governmental Organizations NGOs to carry out little acts of corporate givings and donations, with the help of the media they propagate the gospel of their philanthropic act in a bid to show the world that they care about the people and the communities where they operate. These donations do not in any way alleviate the sufferings of the people as some of the donations are either not sustainable or gets into the hands of few people who enrich themselves at the detriment of the whole lot. In order for businesses to remain profitable and build the confidence people have in them they must practice CSR, any company that takes community needs into cognizance will create a better community for conducting business.

The purpose of this study is to examine the perception and practice of CSR in Nigeria.

This study aims to examine Corporate Social Responsibility in a broader perspective, looking CSR as it should be rather than the way it is practiced here in Nigeria.

This study will further examine various perception of CSR such as employees, Stakeholder, and Shareholders perception. It will take us a bit into how CSR is currently and how it has been practiced by some Multinational companies in Nigeria.



CSR is defined as a companys obligation to exert a positive impact and minimize its negative impact on society (Pride and Ferrell 2006). Multinational companies make deliberate effort to ensure that their activities does not impact on their host community or stakeholders negatively but most often than ever, it is seldom acknowledged or appreciated due to various factors which will be examined and discussed extensively.   This research work is aimed at critically examining the perception and practices of CSR activities carried out by Multinational companies in Nigeria siting cases from companies like chevron Nigeria plc which is among the  big players in the oil and gas industry. Several scholars have carried out a good number of researches on stakeholders perception, the impact of CSR activities on stakeholders, and the standard practices but several questions remain unanswered. According Abefe-Balogun (2011), Corporate Social Responsibility focus has always been on the lowest socio-economic levels such as the less-privileged people because its has been perceived as to be more about philanthropy. The oil and gas industry have over the years have experienced astronomical boom since the discovery of oil in Oloibiri in Nigeria on Sunday 15th January 1956, arising from deregulation and liberalization of the economy in 2001, the Oil & Gas industry have been responsible for the employment of millions of Nigerian citizens. This sector has contributed immensely to the boost of the countrys economy. As the most active sector in the Nigeria, the corporate social responsibility role expected from the operators cannot be over-emphasized. In previous researches, many attempts have been made to x-ray the various perceptions and practices on the issue of CSR. According to Altschuller and Smith (2011), stakeholders expect companies to manage the social and environmental impacts of their operations, these environmental impacts are Oil spills on the river bed, fumes releasing greenhouse matters into the atmosphere that gives rise to ozone layer depletion there by resulting in climate change, emitting of toxins into the atmosphere and improper waste disposal . This gives rise to companies carrying out various CSR programmes, many of such programmes are not integrated into the organizations operations but are merely taken as philanthropic gestures, public reporting through newspaper and television media so as to give the notion that they are practicing CSR or buy their license to operate. Occasionally, some companies apply environmental and labour standards that suit them to satisfy basic requirements of regulatory authorities like the Department of Petroleum Resources and Nigerian Content Development Board.

Despite the roles played by multinational companies carrying out corporate social responsibility CSR, and the growing importance of social responsibility, the following issues have not been fully addressed.

Why should multinational companies be socially responsible to their environment?

What benefits do multinational companies get from performing its corporate social responsibility?

Why is social responsibility considered as a waste drain of business resources?

Are multinational companies in Nigeria socially responsible?

In view of the above, the researcher has taken up the issue of social responsibility in the multinational companies and used chevron Nigerian Plc as a case study to examine the extent of the companys involvement in corporate social responsibility.




For organizations to successfully survive in business, it must recognize the importance of social responsibility to the society. The broad objective of this study is to examine the stakeholders perception and the practices of corporate social responsibility by Multinational companies in Nigeria. Specifically, the study is designed to:

To examine the argument for and against corporate social responsibility by multinationals like chevron plc in Nigeria.

Whether chevron Nigeria pls has been involved in social responsibility activities  and if so, to what extent have they been involved in their corporate  social responsibility to their environment?

To examine whether the immediate environments are taking into cognizance during planning and implementation of social responsibility

To know the factors that motivates the adoption of corporate social responsibility.










In-order to guide the study and achieve the objectives of the study, the following research questions was formulated.

Why is social responsibility necessary in multinational companies?

To what extent does an organization involvement in social responsibility have an effect on the company and its host community?

What factors motivates the company in carrying out corporate social responsibility activities?

Who do you think are the beneficiaries of the company social responsibility activities?




1. Ho: The organization involvement in social responsibility does not have an effect on the company and its host community.

Hi: The organizations in social responsibility activities have an effect on the company and its host community.

2. Ho: Cheveron corporate social responsibility programme does not enhance organization-societal relationship.

Hi: Cheveron corporate social responsibility programme enhances organization-societal relationship.



The study of corporate social responsibility of a business organization is hoped to be of benefits not only to students businessmen, government, customers, community, stockholders, academics, but the whole society. The study also hopes to highlight the problem associated with social responsibility and to make use of the analysis to improve the working situations thereby minimizing the problems social responsibility conflict in that organization and its environment as well.

Finally, the study will inform all at large, the need for corporate social responsibility not only to the firm, but to the society at large.


This research work focuses on the oil and gas industry in Nigeria, but with preference to chevron Nigeria.

This research was faced with a lot of problems and limitations. The major problem acting as a limitation was a problem of Nigerians attitude to the supply of Data to the researcher due to fear. Secondly, because of financial constraints, the scope and dimension of this study could not be extended beyond this limit.



This will be provided in details in due course of the research work

Corporate Social Responsibility: Corporate Social responsibility as described in this study is a demonstration of a corporation or companys sense of responsibility towards the community and environment (both ecological and social) in which it operates.

Social Responsibility: This is the ability of an organization to relate its operations and policies to the environment in such ways that are mutually beneficial to the company and the society.

Social Audit: This is commitment to systematic assessment of reporting on some meaningful and definable domain of companys  activities that have social impact.

Corporate Philanthropy: as a practical sympathy and benevolence shown by a business organization to various sectors of the society.

Share Holders: This include interest group that are tangible, visible and approachable groups or institutions which can exercise direct influence in the functioning or affairs of an organization

Stakeholder: as descrinbed in this study is anyone who can affect or is affected by an organizations business activity.

Perception: as described in this study is the way you think about or understand someone or something.

Practices: as described in this study is amethod, procedure, process, or rule of how things are carried out which are regarded as standard.

Multinational Companies: as described in this study is a business organization whose activities are located in more than two countries operating in the Oil and Gas Industry.


Impact of public procurement Act on the Accountability of procurement officers

CHAPTER I: Introduction

Background of the Study

This study intends to shed more light on the impact of public procurement act on the accountability of procurement officers in public sector in Kaduna state ministry of education and how it contribute positively towards the conservation of resources in a services organization.

However, the researcher feel it would be of great importance to conduct a detailed study on the procurement process or system used by the services organization and the impact of federal government procurement act on the accountability of procurement officers in the public sector.

Base on wide spread corruption, conducting government business degenerated so much by the year 2000. This was due to the fact that no serious attention was paid to public service rule.

Financial regulations ethics and norms because of selfish reasons. The federal government noted the urgent need to transparency in government procedure so as to be able to move the system forward. Hence, the federal government in 2000 commissioned the world bank to collaborate with some private sector specialist to study financial systems and general procurement related activities in the country. The essence of this request to the world bank is to assist Nigerian government with a process of enthroning efficiency, accountability, integrity and transparency in government procurement and financial management system.

It was based on this that the country procurement assessment report was produced through a participatory review approach from key stakeholders including representative from private and the federal, state and local government with assistance from international and national consultants.

Statement of the Problems

A diagnostic study conducted in 2001 in to the state of federal government public procurement revealed that Nigeria may have lost trillions of naira over the last two decades because of flagrant abuse of procedures for the award of public contracts, inflation of contracts costs, lack of transparency, lack of competence based competition and merit as the fundamental criteria for the award of public contracts. The finding of the study made it imperative that the country urgently reform its procurements system, if the country is to reduce the large scale corruption and waste that had reduced the efficiency of the Nigeria public sector

Most organization lost a lot of money annually through all kind of manipulation of the procedure for the award of contracts and supply of materials.

Ministries and government agencies has been facing difficulties in the award of contract due to lack of due process in the agencies.

Federal government preferment act on the accountability of procurement officers in public sector is a vital tool in any fine-tuning organization either service or profit oriented organization. But it has been observed that its importance and role which can lead to efficiency had not yet been appreciated in most Nigeria ministries today.

Objective of the Study

The main rational of this study is to appraise the procurement act and its impact on the accountability of officers in public sector.

These objectives are as follows:

To evaluate the procurement act as it relates to providing fair opportunities to suppliers through bidding in a competitive environment for all government business.

To evaluate the contributions /impact of the act towards reducing and eliminating corruption in the procurement process and earn the respect of the public and supplier.

To examine the contribution of the act toward Quality control and assurance

To evaluate the contributions of the procurement act towards budget monitoring and control.

Significance of the Study

The research work will critically concern with the impact of procurement act on the accountability of procurement officers in public sector which is essential things in the government ministries for the award of public contract. It is imperative to note that this research work will be beneficial

The importance of the research work base on its benefit, there will be ultimate to the organization itself and students of purchasing and supply department at large.

Significantly the researcher hope that this research work will provide the organization with a meaningful and useful source of information in to guess to embark on procuring and award of contracts.

Organization will benefit from the research finding and recommendation in the process of awarding contract and procurements

It will also be useful to subsequent researcher and student who may wish to conduct further research in this field, it will served as data base for further study.

It is a requirement in partial fulfillment for the award of a Higher National Diploma in Purchasing and Supply of Kaduna Polytechnic.



Research Questions

How do the procurement act provide fair opportunity to suppliers in the competitive market environment.

What are the impact of the procurement act towards reducing corruption in the award of public contract.

What are the contribution of the procurement act of quality control and assurance.

What are the relevance of procurement reforms act to subject monitoring and control.


Scope of the Study

This study does answer to all problems related to the federal government procurement act rather its limited to it chosen narrow area of accountability of procurement officers, its fairness, integrity and basis of effective control in public sector

Since the researcher is concerned with federal government procurement act on the accountability of procurement officers in the public sector particularly Kaduna state ministry of education.



Definition of Terms

The terms used in the course of the researchers project are however defined as follows for easy understanding.

Procurement: This is the acquisition of goods services or works from an external source.

Procurement: Means acquisition

Procurement Proceeding: Means the initiation of the process of effecting a procurement up to award of procurement contract.

Procurement entity: Means any public body engaged in procurement and it include a ministry extra-ministerial office, government agency, parastatals and corporation.

Public procurement:  Means the acquisition by any means of goods, works or services by the government.

Public accountability: The obligations of public enterprises and agencies (who are entrusted with public resources) to be answerable for fiscal and social responsibilities, to them.

Due process: It is a mechanism for ensuring strict compliance with the openness, completion and cost accuracy, rules and procedures that should guide contract award within the federal republic of Nigeria (BMPIU 2005)

Relevant Authority: It includes economic and financial crimes commission (EFCC) and independent corrupt practices commission (ICPC).

Public Procurement Act: It is the act enacted by the national assembly to establish two public procurement  regulating authorities.

Democratic control



Democratic Control are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decision.

Members are the source of all authority in cooperative, the basic unit in democratic control are the members. Decision in democratic control are made jointly by members irrespective of their financial consideration or position without any respect to the amount of shares or other capital interest that he may have in the society, will not make him have more vote/control than other members. The controlled as mentioned  earlier is in the hands of members, whose loyalty and activeness are necessary in setting their policies and making decision.

Onuoha (2002) men and women serving as elected representative have equal voting right (one member, one vote) and cooperative at other levels are organized in democratic member and participating in decision affecting their society.

The Democratic Principle emanates from the Rockdale equitable pioneers as it was seen that every member interest needs to be covered and to maintain the importance of each and everyones decision making in order to improve upon member loyalty when decisions are made.

This democratic principle is held by many authors as the foremost principle of cooperation. The believe at this principle is that every member is equal as person and as human being who wish to be held. The peculiarity of cooperative which believe that cooperative belong to member and they have the right to manage it in such a way that the organization function like a democratic institution.

Onuoha and Buden (2002) agree that cooperative should manage their cooperative enterprises by themselves and state the policies that should govern such management. They should exercise loyalty even in the affairs of their unions and apex organization without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination.

The supreme authority is vested on the entire members irrespective of ones financial position, this make the members loyalty improve, knowing fully well that the society appreciate and accommodate them.

Necessitate this research which is improving upon member loyalty through the application of the principle of democratic control.  A study of two (2) society which are mainly Surulere Cooperative Society and National Archives Multipurpose Cooperative Society. The research will like to know how member co-exist, how do organs of the society co-exist, or who make the members loyalty improve, who makes laws and rules for the society and what is the criteria for knowing member loyalty.


Improving upon members loyalty through the application of the principle of democratic control cannot be over emphasized. In the real sense of cooperative it should be a guide to enable/improve member loyalty if properly executed. There is likelihood of the success to the society. However, it is clear that most of these procedures are not followed, hence creating a lot of problem in improving upon member loyalty and it is based on that, that this research is carried out.


To determine upon member loyalty through the principle or democratic control.

To find out the problem of member loyalty through the principle of democratic control.

To identify the factors affecting members loyalty.


What is the extent of improving member loyalty through the application of the principle of Democratic Control?

What is the effect derivable from the application of the democratic control?

What are the problems of application of the principle of democratic control?


The study examines improving upon member loyalty through the application of the principle of democratic control. The significant of the study cannot be underestimated, as this research work will be a reference for the incoming students, so they can borrow form it. This research or finding shall be very effective in enacting policies that will help regulate the activities of the types of cooperative in question for improving upon member loyalty to the general public who are interested in cooperative, they will use the result as a base for formation of viable for improving member loyalty. It will help create more awareness of the application of democratic control and improving upon member loyalty.


This study determines upon member loyalty through the application of democratic control. The study covers the extent of improving member loyalty, the modalities involved and the possible way that democratic control will be applied effectively. This research is restricted to the two selected society which are Surulere Cooperative Society located in Kaduna and National Archives Multipurpose Cooperative Society.


Improving: Is a case where one is trying to advance from the present place or situation.

Member Loyalty: Is the quality of staying firm in your friendship or support for someone or something.

Application: This is a formal request to an authority for something.

Principle: This is a general belief that you have about the way you should behave, which influences your behavior.

Democratic Control: This is a type of control in which members of the group takes more participative role in the decision making process.


Accounting ratios is primarily designed to meet the informational needs of equity investors, bankers, analyst lawyers, government and creditors.
The objective of the ratio analysis includes the comparative measurement of the risk and return facilitating intelligent investments on credit decisions. Read More »

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